Kenya’s Constitution provides the basis for action on climate change by guaranteeing citizens a clean and healthy environment, which is a fundamental right under the Bill of Rights. Kenya’s climate change governance structure has been informed by global and regional commitments and obligations, such as the UNFCCC, Africa’s African Climate Change Strategy (2011) and East Africa’s Climate Change Policy, Strategy and Master Plan (2011). Actions to develop a policy and institutional framework to guide Kenya toward a low carbon climate resilient development pathway are described below.
Intended Nationally Determined Contribution: Kenya’s mitigation contribution is to abate its greenhouse gas emissions by 30 per cent by 2030 relative to the business as usual scenario. Kenya also commits to mainstream adaptation into Medium Term Plans and to implement actions. Achievement of these contributions will require financial, technology and capacity building support (MENRRDA).
Second Medium Term Plan of Vision 2030: Mainstreaming of climate change in national planning, by identifying actions to address climate change, many of them recommended in the NCCAP (MODP).
County Integrated Development Plans: Many county governments are addressing climate change in their policy and planning documents, including the CIDPs that outline development priorities (County Governments).
National Climate Change Framework Policy: adopts a climate change mainstreaming approach that includes integration of climate change considerations into development planning, budgeting and implementation in all sectors and at all levels of government (MENRRDA).
Climate change legislation: A Climate Change Bill is expected to be enacted into law. This legislation includes establishment of a National Climate Change Council that has responsibility for coordination of climate change actions, including mainstreaming climate change in national and county budgets, plans and programs (MENRRDA).
Draft National Policy on Climate Finance: aims to further Kenya’s national development goals through enhanced mobilization of climate finance (National Treasury and MENRRDA).
National Climate Change Response Strategy, 2010: the first national policy document on climate change has improved understanding of the issue and has guided policy decisions (MENRRDA).
National Climate Change Action Plan 2013-2017: sets out priority adaptation and mitigation actions that will help Kenya move toward a low carbon climate resilient development pathway. Effective implementation will be supported through the establishment of an enabling governance structure including a climate change policy and law, a funding mechanism and investment framework, a capacity development and management framework, and a national performance and benefit measurement system (MEF).
National Climate Change Action Plan 2018-2022:sets out Seven priority areas on adaptation and mitigation actions. The Seven priority areas includes Disaster Risk Management; Food and Nutrition Security; Water and the Blue Economy; Forestry; Wildlife, and Tourism; Health , Sanitation, and Human Settlements; Manufacturing; and Energy and Transport. Through these priority areas, climate change action is aligned to the Government’s Big Four Agenda, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
National Adaptation Plan 2015-2030: consolidates the country’s vision on adaptation supported by macro-level adaptation actions that relate with the economic sectors and county level vulnerabilities in order to enhance long term resilience and adaptive capacity (MEF).
Green Economy Strategy and Implementation Plan: sets out a framework to encourage a shift towards a development path that promotes resource efficiency and sustainable management of natural resources, social inclusion, resilience and sustainable infrastructure development (MENRRDA).
Agricultural Sector Development Strategy: the Agriculture (farm forestry) Rules require the establishment and maintenance of farm forestry on at least 10 per cent of every agricultural land holding (MALF).
Draft Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture Framework Programme 2015-2030: promotes climate resilient and low carbon growth sustainable agriculture that ensures food security and contributes to national development goals in line with Kenya Vision 2030 (MALF and MENRRDA).
REDD+ Readiness: the proposal outlines a strategy for developing REDD+ in Kenya (REDD+ Coordination Office, KFS).
Renewable energy policy tools: 0% import duties and Value-added tax exemption on renewable energy materials, equipment and accessories; feed-in tariffs at a price level that attracts and stimulates new investment in the renewable energy sector (ERC).
Energy regulations: on solar water heating, energy management and solar photovoltaic systems were passed in 2012. The regulations require that: buildings using more than 100 litres per day shall use solar water heating systems; designated energy consuming facilities shall carry out energy audits and implement audit recommendations; and design, manufacture and sale of solar PV be licensed by the ERC. Draft regulations developed to set minimum energy performance standards for selected electrical appliances and improved biomass cook stoves (ERC).